AERO / AIRO FINISH: A process using air to "thrash" the fabric until soft to the hand.
ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH: This finish developed for the health care industry provides protection from yeast, fungi and bacteria developing and settling into fabric. It also resists blood, urine and protein stains.
CHINTZ: A heat pressure process using a resin finish to create a polished surface.
CURING: This process helps set pigments.
EMERIZE: A process using a cylinder covered with emery to even raised nap and enhance luster.
ENZYME FINISH: Commonly applied to a ground cloth prior to dyeing, printing or finishing. This process is used to accelerate a chemical reaction.
ENZYME WASH: The use of a cellulose enzyme to produce a stone washed look without damaging fibers. This process also softens the hand of a treated fabric.
DEGLAZING: This process removes as much glazing as possible from a chintz fabric.
FLAME-RESISTANT FABRIC: A fabric that has been treated and/or holds natural properties to self-extinguish when exposed to an ignition source. Prolonged exposure, however, will lead to charring, burning and ultimately ignition.
FLAME-RETARDANT: A chemical application designed to increase a fabric's resistance to flame spread. Although a treated fabric may char when exposed to an ignition source, it will be less likely to flame up and/or burn. Of course, no flame retardant will protect absolutely and its effectiveness diminishes commensurate to the duration and intensity of exposure to heat and flame. Two types of processes can be employed: water soluble and insoluble. Both compounds may affect the hand and sometimes the appearance of a fabric; however, they are unlikely to compromise its quality and durability. In many cases, FR can prolong the life of a fabric. A water insoluble compound is the desired specification for an installation expected to receive repeated cleaning. For those who intend to apply both FR and Nanotex®, the FR must be applied first.
FLOCKING: The application of pulverized wool or felt to the reverse side of a fabric to create a black-out lining.
MILDEW RESISTANT: This provides a mildew inhibitor and fungicide for fabrics exposed to damp climates.
MOTH RESISTANT: This aids in deterring moths from attacking and damaging fabric.
NANO-TEX®: Nano-scale molecules are bound to fabric at the microscopic level, permanently introducing liquid and stain repellence and enhancing abrasion resistance while maintaining the natural hand, comfort and breathability of the fabric. Learn more from the Nano-Tex® website.
POLYESTER ACRYLIC BINDER: A face coating that prepares fabric to be painted upon.
POLYURETHANE COATING: A polyurethane coating is applied to the face of a fabric when additional protection is needed. It is particularly effective in protecting dark colors. It can also be applied to fabrics that for technical reasons cannot be vinylized.
PRE-SHRINKING: A non-chemical method designed to minimize shrinkage. To prevent further shrinkage it is recommended that the fabric be dry cleaned rather than laundered. Not to be confused with pre-washing.
PRE-WASHING: The process of washing a cloth to set dyes, reduce stiffness and soften the hand prior to offering for sale. Pre-washing does not necessarily result in pre-shrinking.
STAIN RESISTANT: Several processes are available under this category. Some work better than others and all can ultimately break down with repeated washing and/or dry cleaning.
TEFLON®: A stain-resistant, water-repellent fluorocarbon finish trademarked by the DuPont™ Company. There are several stain-resistant finishes known to perform similarly.
VINYL COATING: Vinyl coating is available in both a matte and polished finish. Stains can be wiped clean with a clean cloth, mild detergent and water. Vinylizing provides long lasting protection. It does not make fabric weatherproof and should not be used outdoors or in areas of high humidity. When used for upholstery, it should only be used over firm cushions. To vinylize a fabric for the walls, one must have it paperbacked. Acrylic backing cannot be used at all because the chemicals will not work together correctly. Colors are subject to minor shade changes.
WATER REPELLENT: Various chemical compounds are available to make it difficult for water to seep through the surface of a treated fabric. No woven fabric is completely impervious to water, and prolonged exposure can lead to a breakdown of the surface tension between a liquid and the treated fibers. There are varying degrees of repellency that can be specified depending on the fabric's use.
backing or back coatings
There are several types of back coatings available. For best results, consult both your fabric vendor and workroom representative to discern which backing treatment, if any, is most appropriately suited to your particular project.
ACRYLIC BACKING: Acrylic backing is used for upholstery and wall applications. The same chemical components are used for both applications—the only difference is in the thickness that is applied to the fabric. When choosing acrylic backing, the benefits include greater flexibility, a natural hand, seam slippage resistance and prevention of fraying or curling. Acrylic backed fabric can be FR-treated to pass local fire codes.DURABLOCK®: DuraBlock is a high performance textile technology that laminates a durable liquid barrier to a textile treated with Nano-Tex®. It provides comfortable cushion protection where required, combined with optimum spill/stain prevention and cleanability. Learn more about Durablock.
KNIT BACKING: This backing is used in both upholstery and drapery applications. It gives a fabric more dimensional stability while retaining original look and hand. Knit-backing also enhances fabric tear strength, which transforms a thinner fabric into a fabric appropriate for upholstery use.
LATEX BACKING: Latex backing stabilizes and reinforces fabrics for upholstery use. It improves handling characteristics which may aide upholsterers and fabricators during the assembly process. Fraying and seam slippage are mitigated, extending the life of an upholstered piece.
PAPER BACKING: Paper backing is the most commonly known backing for walls. It offers a strong barrier and requires no sealing on the face of the fabric. This is especially important when using a thinner fabric such as chintz. It also allows for a fabric to be vinylized, something that cannot be done with any acrylic backed fabric. Note that a one-yard loss is to be expected with every continuous piece that is paperbacked.